The University of Pennsylvania excavators found over four hundred and fifty clay lamps in their excavation, many of which showed black soot-marks from use. Lamps were a common means of lighting in the Byzantine world, as Geoffrey Shamos writes, being cheap to manufacture and decorate in bulk. Only five of the collection are shown above; the large museum collections awaits adequate cataloguing and photographic recording.
Provenience: from the excavations of the LTN and LTW. Lamps were also found in debris, as well as in cisterns.
Date: 350-700 C.E.
M.G. Parani and Laskarina Bouras, Lighting in Early Byzantium (Dumbarton Oaks, 2008)
For comparative material, see for instance R. Rosenthal and R. Sivan, Ancient Lamps in the Schloessinger Collection (Jerusalem, 1978)